E-ISSN 2534-9821
 

Review Article 


Persistent immunological changes associated with covid-19 infection and its clinical consequences in chronic kidney disease cases

Seema Singh, Syed Tahseen Raza.

Abstract
Patients with CKD have an elevated likelihood of acquiring serious COVID-19. In comparison, the mortality rate tends to be higher than in the overall population and is not always specifically related to pulmonary compromise magnitude. This is not unexpected, considering that infectious or serious illnesses (e.g. influenza) are correlated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular problems in the overall population and individuals with CKD [32, 33]. In addition, CKD patients also have comorbidities with cardiovascular and diabetes that could be individually predisposed to extreme COVID-19. In the absence of a vaccine or licenced treatment, nephrologists should encourage patients with CKD to follow guidelines for social exclusion targeted at high-risk patients. These should be applied to dialysis facilities, where a high suspicion index and COVID-19 monitoring should be added.

Key words: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), chronic kidney disease (CKD), Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), cytokine storm


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Seema Singh
Articles by Syed Tahseen Raza
on Google
on Google Scholar


How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Singh S, Raza ST. Persistent immunological changes associated with covid-19 infection and its clinical consequences in chronic kidney disease cases. Int J Med Rev Case Rep. 2021; 5(2): 85-92. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.covid-19-immunological-changes-641


Web Style

Singh S, Raza ST. Persistent immunological changes associated with covid-19 infection and its clinical consequences in chronic kidney disease cases. http://www.mdpub.net/?mno=61127 [Access: May 23, 2021]. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.covid-19-immunological-changes-641


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Singh S, Raza ST. Persistent immunological changes associated with covid-19 infection and its clinical consequences in chronic kidney disease cases. Int J Med Rev Case Rep. 2021; 5(2): 85-92. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.covid-19-immunological-changes-641



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Singh S, Raza ST. Persistent immunological changes associated with covid-19 infection and its clinical consequences in chronic kidney disease cases. Int J Med Rev Case Rep. (2021), [cited May 23, 2021]; 5(2): 85-92. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.covid-19-immunological-changes-641



Harvard Style

Singh, S. & Raza, . S. T. (2021) Persistent immunological changes associated with covid-19 infection and its clinical consequences in chronic kidney disease cases. Int J Med Rev Case Rep, 5 (2), 85-92. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.covid-19-immunological-changes-641



Turabian Style

Singh, Seema, and Syed Tahseen Raza. 2021. Persistent immunological changes associated with covid-19 infection and its clinical consequences in chronic kidney disease cases. International Journal of Medical Reviews and Case Reports, 5 (2), 85-92. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.covid-19-immunological-changes-641



Chicago Style

Singh, Seema, and Syed Tahseen Raza. "Persistent immunological changes associated with covid-19 infection and its clinical consequences in chronic kidney disease cases." International Journal of Medical Reviews and Case Reports 5 (2021), 85-92. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.covid-19-immunological-changes-641



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Singh, Seema, and Syed Tahseen Raza. "Persistent immunological changes associated with covid-19 infection and its clinical consequences in chronic kidney disease cases." International Journal of Medical Reviews and Case Reports 5.2 (2021), 85-92. Print. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.covid-19-immunological-changes-641



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Singh, S. & Raza, . S. T. (2021) Persistent immunological changes associated with covid-19 infection and its clinical consequences in chronic kidney disease cases. International Journal of Medical Reviews and Case Reports, 5 (2), 85-92. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.covid-19-immunological-changes-641