E-ISSN 2534-9821
 

Review Article 


Classical Theory and Glutamate’s Role in Wake-Sleep Cycle

Desak Ketut Indrasari Utami, Putu Lohita Rahmawati.

Abstract
Sleep is a complex process that has an important role in physiological function. The mechanism on how exactly the human wake-sleep cycle is running has not been identified. The classical theory has been a cornerstone of the explanation since the early 20th century. According to the theory, various neurotransmitters links several structures in the brainstem, diencephalon and cortex in order to maintain the cycle. However, there are several aspects of sleep that cannot be explained by the theory such as how the process of transition from slow-wave sleep to REM sleep, how the regulation of muscle atony and eye movement during REM sleep, and why damage to one nucleus of the awareness system has little effect on daily sleep quantity. A new paradigm in the wake-sleep cycle by adding the role of the rapid neurotransmitters, the balance of glutamate and GABA, has become the focus of sleep research in the last 10 years. Recent evidence points to the important role of glutamate to fill in gaps in the classical theory of the wake-sleep cycle, sleep homeostasis and its effects on neuroplasticity, and the development of various neurodegenerative diseases.

Key words: Wake-sleep cycle, glutamate, neurotransmitters


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Desak Ketut Indrasari Utami
Articles by Putu Lohita Rahmawati
on Google
on Google Scholar


How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Utami DKI, Rahmawati PL. Classical Theory and Glutamate’s Role in Wake-Sleep Cycle. Int J Med Rev Case Rep. 2021; 5(12): 11-14. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.ClassicalTheoryandGlutamatesRoleinWake-SleepCycle


Web Style

Utami DKI, Rahmawati PL. Classical Theory and Glutamate’s Role in Wake-Sleep Cycle. https://www.mdpub.net/?mno=92106 [Access: May 07, 2022]. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.ClassicalTheoryandGlutamatesRoleinWake-SleepCycle


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Utami DKI, Rahmawati PL. Classical Theory and Glutamate’s Role in Wake-Sleep Cycle. Int J Med Rev Case Rep. 2021; 5(12): 11-14. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.ClassicalTheoryandGlutamatesRoleinWake-SleepCycle



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Utami DKI, Rahmawati PL. Classical Theory and Glutamate’s Role in Wake-Sleep Cycle. Int J Med Rev Case Rep. (2021), [cited May 07, 2022]; 5(12): 11-14. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.ClassicalTheoryandGlutamatesRoleinWake-SleepCycle



Harvard Style

Utami, D. K. I. & Rahmawati, . P. L. (2021) Classical Theory and Glutamate’s Role in Wake-Sleep Cycle. Int J Med Rev Case Rep, 5 (12), 11-14. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.ClassicalTheoryandGlutamatesRoleinWake-SleepCycle



Turabian Style

Utami, Desak Ketut Indrasari, and Putu Lohita Rahmawati. 2021. Classical Theory and Glutamate’s Role in Wake-Sleep Cycle. International Journal of Medical Reviews and Case Reports, 5 (12), 11-14. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.ClassicalTheoryandGlutamatesRoleinWake-SleepCycle



Chicago Style

Utami, Desak Ketut Indrasari, and Putu Lohita Rahmawati. "Classical Theory and Glutamate’s Role in Wake-Sleep Cycle." International Journal of Medical Reviews and Case Reports 5 (2021), 11-14. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.ClassicalTheoryandGlutamatesRoleinWake-SleepCycle



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Utami, Desak Ketut Indrasari, and Putu Lohita Rahmawati. "Classical Theory and Glutamate’s Role in Wake-Sleep Cycle." International Journal of Medical Reviews and Case Reports 5.12 (2021), 11-14. Print. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.ClassicalTheoryandGlutamatesRoleinWake-SleepCycle



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Utami, D. K. I. & Rahmawati, . P. L. (2021) Classical Theory and Glutamate’s Role in Wake-Sleep Cycle. International Journal of Medical Reviews and Case Reports, 5 (12), 11-14. doi:10.5455/IJMRCR.ClassicalTheoryandGlutamatesRoleinWake-SleepCycle